In 2015 and 2016, the authors collected data from 48 of the 54 forest stands surveyed in 1968–69. Stands were dominated by transitional forest of northern hardwoods. Their survey depicts a forest that is trending to a later successional stage of development and recovering from the cutover from the early 20th century. Future threats to these forests include disruptions in the natural fire regime, non-native plants, insect infestations, excessive fragmentation from harvesting activities and climate change. These forests may exhibit some resiliency to climate change due to the watershed’s proximity to Lake Superior and the river’s deep valley.

To read the article, click on Great Lakes Bot 59.1.