The vascular plants of the Bois Brule River watershed are listed, and over 160 years of change in plant communities observed is described. The diverse landscape supports boreal forest, northern mesic forest, northern wet-mesic forest, pine barrens, and other forested and non-forested communities. Five generalized changes in the watershed were noted: (i) the pine barrens community declined by more than 95%, (ii) the northern wet-mesic forest (dominated by white cedar) immediately surrounding the river has been reduced to a narrow band, (iii) the large complex of conifer wetlands is greatly reduced, (iv) northern hardwood swamp (dominated by black ash), spectacled alder thickets, and the boreal forest in the lower reaches of the forest have been reduced and converted largely to timber production, and (v) old growth forest has been reduced to less than 1% of its pre-EuroAmerican settlement extent.

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